What Is An Sg&a Expense?


The amount that a company spends on SG&A may play a key role in determining its profitability. This measure calculates selling, general, and administrative (SG&A) costs per business entity employee. Selling, General, and Administrative (SG&A) Costs refers to the marketing and selling of products/services, accounting, planning, human resources, research and development and maintenance of facilities. This Cost Effectiveness measure is intended to help companies understand this cost expenditure related to the function “Develop and Manage Human Capital”. General and Administrative (G&A) expenses are the day-to-day costs a business must pay to operate, whether or not it manufactures products or generates revenue. Typical G&A expenses include rent, utilities, insurance payments, and wages and salaries for administrative and management staff other than salespeople. SG&A expenses include all of the day-to-day operating costs of running a company that aren’t directly related to producing a product or service (i.e., non-production costs).

They differ from the direct product or service costs that comprise cost of goods sold, such as raw materials and direct labor costs. A line item found on a profit and loss statement, SG&A expenses are often expressed as a percentage of a company’s net sales. SG&A includes all non-production expenses incurred by a company in any given period.

What Are Some Typical Sg&a Expenses?

Includes marketing and selling of products/services, accounting, planning, human resources, research and development and maintenance of facilities. Well for starters, you can break selling expenses down into direct and indirect costs of selling a product. Direct expenses occur when you sell a product, and they include shipping supplies and delivery charges. Indirect selling expenses include costs you incur before or after a sale, like marketing, advertising, promotional expenses, travel costs, and salaries for salespeople .

  • SG&A expense ratios vary widely by industry and should therefore only be used in comparison with like industries.
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  • Then, when trying to increase profits, SG&A can be reviewed to identify areas of bloat.
  • Any costs related to manufacturing or sales would not be a part of SG&A.
  • For example, once a product is sold, it must be packed and shipped.
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Taking a deeper dive into your SG&A expenses can give you better insight into company performance, as well as point out areas of concern. Alphabet annual/quarterly sg&a expenses history and growth rate from 2010 to 2022. Sg&a expenses can be defined as the sum of all selling, general and administrative expenses.Alphabet sg&a expenses for the quarter ending March 31, 2022 were $9.199B, a 26.2% increase year-over-year. Indirect costs are any costs incurred when trying to earn sales. They happen before the sale of a product, or throughout a sales cycle. Some of the general costs you’ll see in this category are advertising, marketing, travel costs, and salesperson salaries. SG&A expense is listed below gross profit, followed by other expenses that do not fall under SG&A or COGS, such as financial expenses which do not directly relate to central operations.

How Does Sg&a Appear On The Income Statement?

The indirect expenses of producing the company’s goods or services. These include HQ expenses, management costs, advertising, insurance and the like. sg&a expenses are different from costs of goods and services because SG&A cannot be linked directly to the production of products or services being sold. The Hackett Group® is a leading global strategy and operations consulting firm, with particular expertise in performance benchmarking and process transformation. We also offer supply chain consulting that can help you form a forward-looking supply chain strategy and better manage supplier relationships and inventory. Selling, general and administrative — or SG&A — expenses are the costs a business incurs to support production and manufacturing.

Monitoring your company’s SG&A can show you where you need to cut costs. If you’re struggling to keep profits up, make a profit, or notice an increase in expenses, you may need to decrease your SG&A costs. It’s entirely up to each business to decide whether it wants to report SG&A expenses separately or just include them in operating expenses. If you’re using accounting software, the structure of the software will automatically categorize SG&A expenses based on information provided during the software setup process. In many cases, there is no difference between SG&A and operating expenses, with the only distinction being the level of detail with which these expenses appear on your income statement. The purchase of office supplies and office equipment under the threshold stated in company policy for noncapitalized equipment are SG&A costs, as are postage and printing costs. Dues paid for memberships to professional organizations and subscriptions to trade magazines and associations are SG&A costs.


SG&A expenses comprise all the day-to-day operating costs of running a business that aren’t related to producing a good or service. This includes a wide range of expenses, such as rent, advertising and marketing, and salaries of management and administrative staff. SG&A does not include the direct costs of producing goods or acquiring goods for sale, which are calculated separately as cost of goods sold .

The cost of selling to the OEM market was also lower because the company’s salespeople didn’t have to call on OEM accounts as frequently as on accounts in the other two markets. What top management learned was that the OEM market was more profitable than had been assumed. The manufacturing services specialist also suggested that corporate quality control costs be divided according to the number of QC employees assigned to each division.

Sg&a Expenses Need To Be Regularly Reviewed

Restructuring and cost-cutting are required to reduce the expenses of Selling, General & Administrative costs. SG&A is an important point to remember when calculating a company’s profitability.


Percentage rates of space utilization could then be calculated by product line. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. Investopedia does not include all offers available in the marketplace.


Indirect selling expenses occur throughout the manufacturing process and after the product is finished. Examples are advertising and marketing, telephone bills, travel costs, and the salaries of sales personnel. Selling, General & Administrative (SG&A) expenses are the costs a company incurs to promote, sell and deliver its products and services, as well as to manage day-to-day operations.

Typically, the operating expenses and https://www.bookstime.com/ of a company represent the same costs – those independent of and not included in cost of goods sold. But sometimes, SG&A is listed as a subcategory of operating expenses on the income statement. It’s also one of the easiest places for management to look when trying to boost profitability.

Sg&a Ratio Calculation Example

After all these expenses are deducted from revenue, profit or loss is what we call net income, quite literally, “the bottom line” on the income statement. On the income statement, total revenue is shown and reduced by COGS to arrive at gross profit. This shows how much revenue remains to cover operating expenses and hopefully still leave a profit. The two main categories of expenses on an income statement are the cost of goods sold and selling, general, and administrative (SG&A) expenses. COGS is the expense that most directly drives revenue and refers to the direct costs of manufacturing goods sold.


SG&A expenses include most expenses related to running a business outside of COGS. This includes salaries, rent, utilities, advertising, marketing, technology, and supplies not used in manufacturing.

How To List Sg&a And Cogs

However, U.S. accounting standards treat R&D as a separate operating expense that’s not part of SG&A. Depreciation is typically reported as a separate line item within operating expenses, too. Both operating expenses and SG&A are key components of tracking net income, or what’s left over after subtracting expenses and taxes from revenue.

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  • The indirect expenses of producing the company’s goods or services.
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  • They include shipping supplies, delivery charges, and sales commissions.

Zero-base budgeting can also be used to maintain control over the SG&A expense category. When you have a good understanding of your SG&A, you can increase your profits over time. One of the ways to do this is by examining the ratio of your SG&A expenses and sales revenue. However, if that ratio increases over time, it may mean that your business needs to cut costs.

A temporary employee is employed for a finite period of time, to fulfill a time-limited role, or to fill the role of a permanent employee who is absent from work. The length of time an employee can work for the organization and be considered a temporary employee may be governed by employment legislation.

Cutting operating expenses, such as non-sales personnel salaries, can usually be done without disrupting the manufacturing or sales processes. Although many smaller businesses won’t need to separate selling, general expenses, and administrative expenses, calculating SG&A expenses is still a useful process.

With workflows optimized by technology and guided by deep domain expertise, we help organizations grow, manage, and protect their businesses and their client’s businesses. However, for growing businesses, it can be helpful to track SG&A expenses, particularly if you’re in the manufacturing sector. Whether you provide line-by-line detail on your income statement or do a single line item entry, you’ll need to properly categorize SG&A expenses. Most accounting software applications take care of tracking of SG&A expenses, providing business owners with an easy way to analyze the results. While SG&A brings great benefits to a company’s recordkeeping, it also has limitations.

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